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Peter Espeut – Individual Pathology Or Systemic Problem?

Systemic-Problem

A 14-year-old and an 11-year-old were at each other's throat, and the latter put the 14-year-old to eternal sleep in a violent manner. Is this an individual act or a representation of society? If it happened for the first time, an individual psychiatric evaluation is needed; if not, societal restructuring is required.

Jamaica tasted liberation in 1962, and the murder rate back then was almost 3.9 persons out of 100,000 (very low). This figure rose to 58 homicides per 100,000 people (highest rate all over the world) while the total figure was 1674.

Is this societal mental sickness in Jamaica or the country is cursed with pathological murderers? Will executing murderers solve the problem, or will murderers keep marching on like that 11-year-old?

In Jamaica, legally, a girl can have “consent” at 16. However, as per UNICEF, the average age of sexual initiation is 15.8 years in females and 14.5 years in males in Jamaica. This is an “average,” and it does not count for variations. Is it individual brutality or the sickness of society? It can be both.

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Close To Home

As per surveys, 40% of Jamaicans revealed that they were victims of underage forced sexual exploitation, and the culprits were close family members, teachers, policemen, or religious leaders. Is it normal to be a sexual abuser, or do these people having mental disorders? Is it normal if mothers force their daughters to have sexual exploitation to bring food to the table? Just because it is happening, so it is normal? Or is it sick?

A solution is always based on a problem. If it is individual mental sickness, catch the culprits and make an example out of them.  But, if it is a societal nightmare, then it needs proper restrategizing. A replacement of negative values with positive ones is required, and there must be social institutions to reassure these values to every generation. Social dysfunctionality was treated just like individual dysfunctionality, and they both are different, and the problem is way bigger than that.

In 2013, West Indian Medical Journal published an article named “A view of personality disorder from the colonial periphery” by G. Walcott and Fred Hickling. Both of them formulated a Jamaica Personality Disorder Inventory (JPDI). This model was based on three psychological factors; power management, psychosexual abnormalities, and dependency.

Subsequent to approving the JPDI utilizing mental and different patients at the University of the West Indies medical hospital, they dispatched an islandwide logical overview of 1,506 Jamaicans to assess the population.

 

Personality Disorder

The study found out that 41.4% population of the total sample was eligible for personality disorder diagnosis. This rate was 13-15 percent in New Zealand, Canada, the United States, and Europe.

About fifty-seven percent of psychiatric patients in UWI faced mental disorders, while non-psychiatric patients tolled to 28 percent.

The research concluded that the root cause of this mental sickness or disorder was colonial oppression and inherited slavery, which induced violent crimes like homicides, sexual exploitation, and transgressive behavior. However, Jamaica got freedom, but progressive and long lasted slavery embedded extremism, violence, and other similar mental disorders in the inhabitants, which couldn't be rectified even after introducing structural reforms.

Therefore, while setting new parameters and finding new solutions related to these violent curses, we should focus on the root causes and not just symptoms.

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Complete List Of Face Mask Approved Places In South Carolina

Wondering where you would wear a face mask in South Carolina? We have a complete list for you.

Several cities and regions across South Carolina have started placing orders mandating people to wear face masks in various settings.

So, in which places do you need to wear a face mask in the State?

Below is a list of various places that have passed the face mask resolution. The areas are broken into the following regions: Pee Dee, Midlands, Upstate, Lowcountry, and Midlands

 

Columbia

Places for face mask

 

What are the exceptions?

Penance

Expiration date

 

Richland County (Starts July 6)

Places for face mask

 

What are the exceptions?

 

Penance

 

Expiration date

 

Forest Acres (Starts July 6) 

Places for face mask

 

What are the exceptions?


Penance

Expiration date

 

Lexington

Places for face mask

 

What are the exceptions?


Penance


Expiration date

 

Camden (starts July 3)

Places to wear mask


What are the exceptions?


Penance

 

Expiration date

 

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